Programming Languages

Language Intended use Paradigm(s) Standardized?
ActionScript 3.0 Application, client-side, Web event-drivenimperativeobject-oriented 1996, ECMA
Ada Application, embedded, realtime, system concurrent,[2] distributed,[3] generic,[4] imperative object-oriented,[5] procedural,[6] 1983, ANSI, ISO, GOST 27831-88[7]
Aldor Highly domain-specific, symbolic computing imperative, functional, object-oriented No
ALGOL 58 Application imperative No
ALGOL 60 Application imperative 1960, IFIP WG 2.1, ISO[8]
ALGOL 68 Application concurrent, imperative 1968, IFIP WG 2.1GOST 27974-88,[9]
Ateji PX Parallel application object-oriented, pi calculus No
APL Application, data processing array-orientedtacit 1989, ISO
Assembly language General any, imperative, syntax is usually highly specific, related to the target processor No
AutoHotkey GUI automation (macros), highly domain-specific imperative No
AutoIt GUI automation (macros), highly domain-specific event-driven, imperative, procedural No
BASIC Application, education imperative, procedural 1983, ANSI, ISO
BBj Application, business, Web object-oriented, procedural No
BeanShell Application, scripting functional, imperative, object-oriented, reflective In progress, JCP[10]
BLISS System procedural No
BlitzMax Application, game imperative, object-oriented, procedural No
Boo Application No
C System[11] imperative, procedural 1989, ANSI C89, ISO C90/C99, ISO C11
C++ Application, system generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural 2011, ISO
C# Application, business, client-side, general, server-side, Web functional,[12] generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective 2000, ECMA, ISO[13]
Clarion General, business, Web functional,[14] imperative, object-oriented Unknown
Clean General functional, generic No
Clojure General concurrent, functional No
CLU General generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural No
COBOL Application, business imperative, object-oriented 2002 (ISO/IEC 1989)
Cobra Application, business, general, Web functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective No
ColdFusion(CFML) Web object-oriented, procedural No
Common Lisp General functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective 1994, ANSI
COMAL 80 Education imperative, procedural No
Crystal 1.0.0 Education functional, imperative, procedural No
Cython Application, general, numerical computing aspect-oriented, functional, imperative, object-oriented, reflective No
D Application, system generic, generative, imperative, object-oriented, functional, concurrent No
Dart Application, Web imperative, structured, object-oriented No
Dylan Application functional, object-oriented No
DYL-280 Application, system imperative, procedural No
Eiffel Application generic, imperative, object-oriented 2005, ECMA, ISO[15]
Erlang Application, distributed, telecom concurrent, distributed, functional No
Euphoria Application procedural No
Factor stack-oriented No
Falcon General, Application procedural, functional, object oriented, prototype OOP, message oriented, tabular programming No
FP functional No
F# Application functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented No
Forth General imperative, stack-oriented 1994, ANSI
Fortran Application, numerical computing generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural 1966, ANSI 66, ANSI 77, MIL-STD-1753, ISO 90, ISO 95, ISO 2003
G2 Application, inference, expert system common graphical development and runtime environment, event-driven, imperative, object-oriented No
Gambas Application event-driven, imperative, object-oriented No
Game Maker Language Application, games event-driven, imperative, object-oriented No
GLBasic Application, games imperative, procedural, simple object-oriented No
Go Application, system concurrent, imperative No
Gosu Application, general, scripting, Web generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective No
GraphTalk Application logic, object-oriented No
Groovy Application, Web aspect-oriented, imperative, object-oriented, functional In progress, JCP[16]
Harbour Application, business, data processing, general, Web declarative, functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural, reflective No
Haskell Application functional, generic, lazy evaluation 2010, Haskell 2010[17]
haXe Application, general, Web imperative, object-oriented, functional, generic, reflective No
HyperNext Application, education event-driven, procedural, weakly typed No
Io Application, host-driven scripting imperative, object-oriented No
ISLISP General functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented 1997, ISO
J Data processing array-oriented, function-level, tacit No
JADE Application, distributed imperative, object-oriented No
Java Application, business, client-side, general, server-side, Web generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective De facto standard via Java Language Specification
JavaScript Client-side, Web functional, imperative, prototype-based, reflective 1997, ECMA
Joy Research functional, stack-oriented No
LabVIEW (G) Application, industrial instrumentation-automation dataflowvisual No
Lisp General functional Unknown
Logtalk Artificial intelligence, application event-driven, logic, object-oriented, reflective No
Lua Application, embedded scripting aspect-oriented, functional, imperative, object-oriented, procedural, reflective No[18]
Mathematica Highly domain-specific, symbolic computing functional, procedural No
MATLAB Highly domain-specific, numerical computing imperative, object-oriented, procedural No
Modula-2 Application, system generic, imperative 1996, ISO[19]
Modula-3 Application generic, imperative, object-oriented No
Oberon Application, system imperative, object-oriented No
Objective-C Application imperative, object-oriented, reflective No[20]
OCaml Application functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented No
Object Pascal(Delphi) Application, business, client-side, general, server-side, Web aspect-oriented,[21] event-driven, functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural, reflective No
Occam General concurrent, imperative, procedural, process-oriented No
Opa Web applications functional, generic, imperative, distributed No
Oxygene Application generic, imperative, object-oriented No
Oz Application, distribution, education concurrent, functional, imperative, logic, object-oriented No
Pascal Application, education imperative, procedural 1983, ISO[22]
Pawn Embedded, host-driven scripting imperative No
Perl Application, scripting, text processing, Web functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, procedural, reflective No
PHP Server-side, Web Application, Web imperative, object-oriented,[23] procedural,[24] reflective No
PL/I Application imperative, object-oriented, procedural 1969
Plus Application, system development imperative, procedural No
Prolog Application, artificial intelligence logic 1995, ISO
PureBasic Application procedural No
Python Application, general, Web, scripting aspect-oriented, functional, imperative, object-oriented, reflective De facto standard via Python Enhancement Proposals (PEP)s.
Racket Education, general, scripting functional, procedural, modular, object-oriented, logic, reflective, meta No
REALbasic Application procedural Unknown
REBOL Distributed dialected, functional, imperative, object-oriented No
RPG (IBM) Application, system imperative, procedural No
Ruby Application, scripting, Web aspect-oriented, functional, imperative, object-oriented, reflective 2011(JIS X 3017), 2012(ISO/IEC 30170)
Rust Application, system concurrent, functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented, reflective No
S Application, statistics functional, imperative, object-oriented, procedural No
S-Lang Application, numerical, scripting imperative, procedural No
Scala Application, distributed, Web functional, generic, imperative, object-oriented De facto standard via Scala Language Specification (SLS)
Scheme Education, general functional 1998, R6RS
Simula Education, general discrete event simulation, event-driven, imperative, multi-threaded (quasi-parallel) program execution, object-oriented 1968
Smalltalk Application, education concurrent, declarative, event-driven, object-oriented, reflective 1998, ANSI
SNOBOL Text processing Unknown
Standard ML Application functional, generic, imperative 1997, SML ’97[25]
Tcl Application, scripting, Web event-driven, imperative, procedural, reflective No
Visual Basic Application, education component-oriented, event-driven, imperative No
Visual Basic .NET Application, education, Web event-driven, imperative, object-oriented No
Visual Prolog Application declarative, event-driven, functional, imperative, logic, object-oriented No
Windows PowerShell Administration functional, imperative, object-oriented, pipeline, reflective No
XL concept programming, imperative, object-oriented No
Language Intended use Paradigm(s) Standardized?
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